There have been many different Catechisms in the Church throughout the centuries. There was a Jerusalem Catechism, the Catechism of Trent, the Baltimore Catechism, a little Catechism of St. Francis, etc…. Many of these were designed and written for different audiences varying according to age, geography, devotions, and other things. For instance, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued an Adult Catechism and a Youth Catechism. Both of these target specific demographics.
The Fathers of the Second Vatican Council asked that a new Universal Catechism of the Catholic Church be produced as one of the fruits of the Council. When the Catechism was promulgated and published under the Pontificate of St. Pope John Paul II, this goal of the Second Vatican Council was achieved. This is why the Church produced this new Catechism. All the other Catechisms can be used for teaching and for growing in our faith. One Catechism does not necessarily replace another one.